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An image obtained by ultrasound (a machine that creates an image from sound waves bouncing off an object) of the heart that provides information about structure, blood flow, contractility (‘squeeze’), and allows estimation of the blood pressure in the pulmonary arteries.
Swelling caused by fluid build-up and fluid leaking out of blood vessels into surrounding soft tissues; usually occurs in areas that are dependent, such as the legs.
A lung disease usually caused by smoking in which alveoli are lost or damaged, making gas exchange and breathing more difficult
Endothelial cells
Type of cells that line all blood vessels including pulmonary arteries. Transaminitis: an elevation in liver enzymes (measured by a blood test) that indicates irritation, inflammation, or damage to the liver
A very potent vasoconstrictor found in the blood and lung tissue both naturally and in disease states
Endothelin Receptor Antagonists
A class of oral medications that act primarily as vasodilators, and which are used to treat PAH. There are two types of endothelin receptors and medications may block both of these or just one type preferentially.
Exercise oximetry
Measurement of the oxygen saturation in blood during exercise